A Background Introductory

Historical overview on Syria

Hitti, Philip. (1959). Syria: A Short History, pp: (1-5), (119-137). [DS95. H52 1961b]

Ma’oz, Moshe, (1999). Syria: Creating a National Community, In Leonard Binder (ed.) Ethnic Conflict and International Politics in the Middle East, pp: (77- 91).

Polk, William. (2013). Understanding Syria: From Pre-Civil War to Post Assad, The Atlantic.

Pipes, Daniel, (1990). Greater Syria: The History of An Ambition, Oxford University Press.
[DS63. P5 1990]

Raymond Hinnebusch, (2001), Syria: Revolution from Above, Routeledge, pp: 1-45.

Sociopolitical Structure

White, B. (2007). The Nation-State Form and the Emergence of ‘Minorities' in Syria, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism.

Nikolaos, D. (2011). The Struggle for Power in Syria: Politics and Society under Asad and the Ba'th Party, pp: (1-14). [CHECKED OUT DS 98.2.d35 1996)

Saleh, Yasin, (2003). The Political Culture of Modern Syria: It’s Formation, structure and Interactions, Political Culture Case Studies, Conflict Studies Research Centre.

Fildis, A. (2012). Roots of Alawite-Sunni Rivalry in Syria, Middle East Policy.

Zisser, E. (2007). Syria, the Ba‘th Regime and the Islamic Movement: Stepping on a New Path? The Muslim World.


Damascus, Syria - Islamic Empire History: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=49fcdJ3EfZ4&index=10&list=RDAr1Q7RjkkAE

Arab Spring and Syrian’s Struggle:

Lynch, Marc, (2014). The Arab Uprisings Explained: New Contentious Politics in the Middle East, pp: (introduction).

Lynch, Marc, (2014). Syria in the Arab Spring: The Integration of Syria’s Conflict with the Arab Uprisings 2011-2013, Research & Politics Oct 2014, 1 (3).

Eyadat, Z, Seeberg, P. (2013). Migration, Security, and Citizenship in a Changing Middle East, Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Nature America Inc, pp: Introduction.

Al-Saleh, A, and White, L, (2013). Dissecting an Evolving Conflict: The Syrian Uprising and the Future of the Country, ISPU and NAF.

Heydemann, S, (2013). Syria and the Future of Authoritarianism, Journal of Democracy.  


Understanding the Syrian crisis in 5 minutes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-l44KUQHoVY

Part I:

Refugees: Concepts, Theories, and Laws

Shacknve, A, (1985). “Who is a Refugee”, Ethics. Vol: 95, no: 2, pp: 274-284.

Refugees Protection: A Guide to International Refugee Law, UNHCR, pp: (8-20), (41-62).

Claudena Skran & Carla Daughtry, (2007), The Study of Refugees before "Refugee Studies", Refugee Survey Quarterly, Vol. 26. No. 3.

B. S. Chimni, (2009), The Birth of a 'Discipline': From Refugee to Forced Migration Studies, Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 22, No. 1.


UNHCR: Who is a refugee? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EXe4B55hflY

What is asylum and refugee status?: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Smw980hEioU

Institutions and Obligations

Loescher, G, (2001). The UNHCR and World Politics: State Interests vs. Institutional Autonomy, The International Migration Review. Vol. 35. No, 1: UNHCR at 50: Past, Present and Future of Refugee Assistance, pp. 33-56.

Dallal Stevens, (2016), Rights, Needs or Assistance? The Role of the UNHCR in Refugee Protection in the Middle East, The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol.20, No.2.

Susan Martin, (2016), The Global Refugee Crisis, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 17. No. 1.

Gabriele Lombardo, (2015), The Responsibility to Protect and the Lack of Intervention in Syria between the Protection of Human Rights and Geopolitical Strategies, The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 19, No. 8.

An Introduction of International Protection: Protecting Persons of Concern to UNHCR, August, 2015. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees.

Chimni, B. (2000). Globalization, Humanitarianism and the Erosion of Refugee Protection, Journal of Refugee Studies, 13 (3): 243-263.


The UN Refugee Agency: Our Story: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ymxq7D2DfA

UNHCR: Syrian Refugee Registration Challenge: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vjC8cXlI38Q

Syrian Refugees:

Human Rights Watch, (2016), World Report 2016: Syria, https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/world_report_download/wr2016_web.pdf, pp: 547-556.

Khaldoun Khashanah, (2014), The Syrian Crisis: a Systemic Framework, Contemporary Arab Affairs, Vol. 7, No. 1.

Syria Regional Refugee Response, Inter-agency Information sharing Portal, UNHCR, 2016. http://data.unhcr.org/syrianrefugees/regional.php

Regional Refugee and Resilience Plan, 2016 Mid-year report. http://www.3rpsyriacrisis.org/


Part II: Syrian Refugees in the Middle East

A: Jordan

Francis A. (2015). Jordan Refugee Crisis, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Jordan Response Plan for the Syria Crisis, 2016-2018, Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation.

Culbertson, S. Constant, L. (2015). Education of Syrian Refugee Children: Managing the Crisis in Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan, Rand.    

Health Sector Humanitarian Response Strategy, Jordan 2015, Health Sector Working Group.

A Study on Early Marriage in Jordan, 2014, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).  

Doris Carrion, (2015), Syrian Refugees in Jordan: Confronting Difficult Truths, Chatham House.

Stave, S. Hillesund, S. (2015). Impact on Syrian Refugees on the Jordanian Labour Market, International Labour Organization, Regional Office for the Arab States  


Why more Syrian refugees are leaving Jordan than arriving: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b_h6b8l5rb8

Syrian refugees: the women fleeing domestic violence: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pmI3dimX8w0

Syrian Refugees in the Middle East:

B: Lebanon

Dionigi, F, (2016). The Syrian Refugee Crisis in Lebanon: State Fragility and Social Resilience, LSE Middle Eat Center Paper Series, 15.   

Yassin, N. and others, (2015). No Place to Stay? Reflections on Syrian Refugee Shelter Policy in Lebanon, United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat) & the Issam Fares Institute for Public Policy and International Affairs (IFI).

El-Ghali, H. Ghalayini, N and Ismail, G, (2016). Responding to Crisis: Syrian Refugee Education in Lebanon, AUB Policy Institute.

Hala Naufal, (2013), Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: the Humanitarian Approach under Political Divisions, Migration Policy Center, MPC Research Report 2012/13.

Ghida Anani, (2013), Dimensions of Gender-Based Violence against Syrian Refugees in Labanon, Forced Migration Review, Vol. 44.


How Lebanon is coping with more than a million Syrian refugees: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0MAHv5dWwvI


Syrian Refugees in the Middle East

C: Turkey

Kirisci, K. Ferris, E, (2015). Not Likely to Go Home: Syrian Refugees and the Challenges to Turkey and the International Community, Brookings.

Zumray Kutlu-Tonak, (2016), Endless Escape: From Syria to Turkey, Then to Europe, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism, Vol.16, No.1.

Ryan Gingeras, (2016). Can Turkey Assimilate Its Refugees? The Council of Foreign Relations.   

Amnesty International, (2014), Struggling to Survive: Refugees from Syria in Turkey.


Refugee rage: hostility to displaced Syrians rising in Turkey: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8G67V4YN9x0

Syrian child refugees in Turkey: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Te1V6Z9J_pk


Syrian Refugees in the West:

A: Europe

Migrant crisis: Migration to Europe explained in seven charts, BBC, March, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-34131911

Megan Greene and R. Daniel Kelemen, (2016). Europe's Failed Refugee Policy, The Council of Foreign Relation.

Dean, Meryll, (2014), Bridging the Gap: Humanitarian Protection and the Convergence of Laws in Europe. European Law Journal, 20: 34–65. doi:10.1111/eulj.12054

Ostrand, N. (2015). The Syrian Refugee Crisis: A Comparison of Responses by Germany, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Journal of Migration and Human Security.

Lehne, Stefan, (2016). How the Refugee Crisis Will Reshape the EU? Carnegie publication.


The European Refugee Crisis and Syria Explained: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RvOnXh3NN9w

We Walk Together: a Rysian refugee family's journey to the heart of Europe: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubGhzVdnhQw


Syrian Refugees in the West:

B: U.S and Canada

Who we are Really Are? A Conversation with Syrian Refugees in America, The Brookings Institution, Feb, 2016.

Michael Ignatieff, (2016). The United States and the Syrian Refugee Crisis, Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy, January 2016.

Anne-Marie McMurdo, (2016), Causes and Consequences of Canada's Resettlement of Syrian Refugees, Forced Migration Review 52.


Banning Syrian Refugees: Unsettled in America: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92bkwIDplAU

Global Justice and Ethics

Hayter, T, (2004). Open Borders: The Case Against Immigration Controls, London: Pluto Press, pp: 1-7.

Gibney, M, (2015). Refugees and Justice between States, European Journal of Political Theory.